In collaboration with Payame Noor University and Iranian Association For Environmental Assessment (IAEA)

Document Type : Science - Research


1 Ph.D. Student, Department of Architecture, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

2 Associate Professor, Department of Urban Development, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

3 Professor, Department of Urban Development, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran


This article has tried to identify and cluster the effective requirements on the design of biophilic architecture of interurban spaces in the first phase of Ekbatan settlement of Tehran, using the method of structural analysis. Theoretical data has been prepared by documentary method and experimental data by survey method based on Delphi technique. The statistical samples were 20 urban experts and specialists who were selected by snowball sampling method. 55 primary drivers in 6 statistical categories and identified by structural interaction analysis method were processed in MICMAC software. According to the results of the general dispersion pattern of the studied requirements, in terms of mutual effects analysis, it indicates the state of an unstable environmental system in which the design requirements of biophilic interspaces are complex and intermediate in terms of effectiveness and effectiveness, and the requirements are more concentrated in the cluster of independent factors. General patterns, composition of components and habitats and ecosystems have been ranked first to third by obtaining the direct influence of 311, 296 and 278, respectively, and as the most key requirements for the design of biophilic interspaces in the phase 1 residential complex of Ekbatan settlement, Tehran. were chosen. General patterns, composition of components, habitats and ecosystems, inspiration from nature, geographical connection to the place, ecological connection to the place, building form, space as shape and form, coordinating factor of shape and spatial form, natural light, defining spaces. Inside and outside, light and shade, and growth and effectiveness were selected as 13 key requirements for the design of biophilic interspaces in the residential complex of phase 1 of Ekbatan. Key forces in terms of system performance in the design system environment have a role of high effectiveness and low effectiveness. As a result, as stable requirements, it controls the macro state of the system and its changes; The key requirements of the entrance effect of the design system of biophilic spaces in the residential complex of phase 1 of Ekbatan town of Tehran are considered.


Main Subjects

Beatley, T. (2011). Biophilic cities: Integrating nature into urban design and planning. Island Press.
Bolten, B., & Barbiero,G. (2020). Biophilic design: how to enhance physical and psychological health and wellbeing in our built environments. Visions for Sustainability, 1(13), 11-16.
Browning, W. D., Ryan, C. O., & Clancy, J. O. (2014). 14 Patterns of Biophilic Design: Improving Health & Well-Being in the Built Environment. Terrapin Bright Green LLC.
Gaekwad, J. S., Sal Moslehian, A., Roös, P. B., & Walker, A. (2022). A meta-analysis of emotional evidence for the biophilia hypothesis and implications for biophilic design. Frontiers in Psychology, 13, 2476.
Ghorbani Param, M.R., Bavar, C., Mahmoudinejad, H. (2020). Evaluation of the effect of biophilic architectural principles on the quality of housing design in the northern climate of Iran (case study: Gorgan city). New Perspectives in Human Geography Quarterly, 12(2), 405-424. (In Persian)
Ghorbani Param, M.R., Bavar, C., Mahmoudinejad, H. (2020). Comparative study of the effect of biophilic architecture on design of ‎traditional and modern houses (Case study: Gorgan city)‎. Quarterly of Geography (Regional Planing), 10(3), 535-555. (In Persian)
Gillis, K., & Gatersleben, B. (2015). A review of psychological literature on the health and wellbeing benefits of biophilic design. Buildings, 5(3), 948-963.
Kellert, S. R. (2018). Nature by design: The practice of biophilic design. Yale University Press.
Kellert, S. R., Heerwagen, J., & Mador, M. (2008). Biophilic Design: The Theory, Science, and Practice of Bringing Buildings to Life. John Wiley & Sons.
Khalilian, Sh., Albarzi, F., & Sohaili, J. (2017). Investigating the proportions of open and covered spaces in residential complexes in Tehran and their role in improving the quality of the environment. PhD thesis of Qazvin Azad University.
Lee, S., & Kim, Y. (2021). A framework of biophilic urbanism for improving climate change adaptability in urban environments. Urban forestry & urban greening61, 127104.
McPherson, E. G., Simpson, J. R., Peper, P. J., Maco, S. E., & Xiao, Q. (2016). Municipal forest benefits and costs in five US cities. Journal of Forestry, 114(3), 329-338.
Mirzamohammadi, A., & Doozdoozani, Y. (2021). The Effect of Biophilic Architecture on Improving the Environmental Quality of Residential Complexes(Case Study: Aseman Tabriz Residential Complex), Journal of Sustainability, Development and Environment, 2(7), 85-102. (In Persian)
Moosavi, S.M., Mirzaei, R., Heidari, A., Asaadi, S.N. (2023). Investigating the Biophilic Bio-Oriented Approach in the Direction of Designing Compatible with the Environment and Human Health based on the Grand Theory Approach. Geography and Sustainability of Environment, 13(46), 41-54. (In Persian)
Panlasigui, S., Spotswood, E., Beller, E., Grossinger, R. (2021). Biophilia beyond the Building: Applying the tools of Urban Biodiversity Planning to Create Biophilic Cities. Sustainability, 13(5), 2450.
Roe, J. J., Ward Thompson, C., & Aspinall, P. A. (2021). Biophilic design and health and wellbeing: a scoping review of current research. Health & Place, 67, 102512.
Ryan, C.O., Browning, W.D., Clancy, J.O., Andrews, S.L., & Kallianpurka, N.B. (2014). Biophilic Design Patterns Emerging Nature-Based Parameters for Health and Well-Being in the Built Environment. International Journal of Architectural Research, 2 (8), 62-75.
Taylor, R. (2021). The Potential of Biophilic Fractal Designs to Promote Health and Performance: A Review of Experiments and Applications. Sustainability, 13(2), 823-847.
Tekin, B.H., Corcoran, R., Gutiérrez, R.U. (2023). A systematic review and conceptual framework of biophilic design parameters in clinical environments. Health Environments Research & Design Journal, 16(1), 234-250.
Tirri, C., Swanson, H., & Meenar, M. (2021). Finding the “Heart” in the Green: Conducting a Bibliometric Analysis to Emphasize the Need for Connecting Emotions with Biophilic Urban Planning. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 18(18), 9435.
Totaforti, S. (2020). Emerging Biophilic Urbanism: The Value of the Human–Nature Relationship in the Urban Space. Sustainability, 12(13), 5487.
Wilson, E. O. (1984). The biophilia hypothesis. Biophilia, 1-10.
Yanes, A. G., & Biloria, N. M. (2017). Biophilic architecture as environmental rehabilitation: Towards a contemporary naturalness framework for architectural design and theory. In Biophilic Design (pp. 409-424). Springer International Publishing.
خلیلیان، شاهین، البرزی، فریبا، سهیلی، جمال الدین (1397). بررسی تناسبات فضاهای باز و سرپوشیده مجتمع‌‌های مسکونی شهر تهران و نقش آن‌ها بر ارتقای کیفیت محیط. پایان نامه دکتری دانشگاه آزاد قزوین.
قربانی پارام، محمد رضا، باور، سیروس، محمودی نژاد، هادی (1399). ارزیابی تأثیر اصول معماری بیوفیلیک در کیفیت طراحی مسکن در اقلیم شمال ایران (مطالعه موردی: شهر گرگان). فصلنامه نگرش­های نو در جغرافیای انسانی، 12(2)، 405-424.
قربانی پارام، محمد رضا، باور، سیروس، محمودی نژاد، هادی (1399). مطالعه تطبیقی تأثیر معماری بیوفلیک در طراحی خانه‌های سنتی و مدرن (مطالعه موردی: شهر ‏گرگان)‏. فصلنامه جغرافیا (برنامه­ریزی منطقه­ای)، 10(40)، 535-555.
موسوی، سیده مریم، میرزایی، رضا، حیدری، احمد، اسعدی، سیده نگار (1402). بررسی رویکرد زیست‎گرای بیوفیلیک در راستای طراحی سازگار با محیط‎زیست و سلامت انسان مبتنی بر رویکرد داده‎بنیاد. جغرافیا و پایداری محیط، 13(1)، 41-54.
میرزامحمدی، احمد، دوزدوزانی، یاسمن (1400). اثر معماری بیوفیلیک در ارتقا کیفیت محیطی مجتمع­های مسکونی (مطالعه موردی: مجتمع مسکونی آسمان تبریز). پایداری، توسعه و محیط ‌زیست، 2(3)، 102-85.